Infosys Limited is an Indian multinational information technology company that provides business consulting, information technology and outsourcing services. The company is headquartered in Bangalore. Infosys is the second-largest Indian IT company after Tata Consultancy Services by 2020 revenue figures and the 602nd largest public company in the world according to Forbes Global 2000 ranking. On 31 December 2020, its market capitalisation was $71.92 billion. Interview Questions for Technical round of Infosys
1) What are the differences and similarities between C and C++?
Answer: C and C++ both uses the same syntax. C++ is an extension of the C language. C and C++ both can have same compilers. C++ language consists of both classes and objects whereas there are no classes and objects available in C language. C++ is the OOP based programming language whereas C is not an OOPS based programming language.
2) Explain the different modulation techniques?
Answer:There are two types of modulation techniques are
- analog and
- digital modulation.
Further analog modulation is subcategorised into amplitude, frequency and phase modulation.
3) Differences between ‘a’ and “a.”
Answer:Both “a” is a string value whereas ‘a’ is character value in c programming language.
4) What are the pre-processors?
Answer:The pre-processors are just a text substitution tool, and they are instructed by the compiler to do required pre-processing before actual compilation.
5) Differences between ‘Macro’ and ‘ordinary’ by their definition.
Answer:Macro takes the parameters whereas the ordinary definition does not. Based on the parametric values to macro, it can result in a different value during runtime. Ordinary definition value remains the same at all place at runtime.
Macro can be used for any conditional operations whereas the definition cannot. Using macro one can achieve inline functionality in C, that is a macro can be a function performing simple operations. This is not possible while using definitions.
6) What is meant by platform independence?
Answer:The platform independence refers to the ability of a programming language or a platform that you implement on a machine and use them on another machine without any or at least with minimal changes. There are mainly two types of platform independence, source platform independence, and binary platform independence.
7) Differences between Char and Varchar in DBMS?
Answer:Char and Varchar are both known datatypes in DBMS. Char and varchar both datatypes that are used to store characters up to 8000. The only point of difference between these Char and Varchar is that Char has fixed length of string datatype whereas Varchar, as the name suggests, is a variable length character storing data type.
8) What do you know about the different level of languages?
Answer:The different levels of programming languages are as follows:
Low-level Language- Language which is understandable by machine is often referred as machine language (binary language). It is also challenging to read and doing code in this language by humans directly.
Assembly level language– Some mnemonics are used which reduces the complexity of the programs.
Middle-level Language- This language is not so tricky as the assembly language, but still requires the knowledge of computer hardware which makes it quite difficult to program.
High-level language- Its right to say, the level of the programming language is the highest level of the programming language in the technology. These types of programming languages do not involve the knowledge of the hardware. This level of the programming language is elementary to be learned by the humans. For Example, Java, PHP, Perl, Python, etc.
9) What is the word which is used for the virtual machine in JAVA? How is it implemented?
Answer:The word “Java Virtual Machine known as JVM in short” is used for the virtual machines in Java. This word is implemented from the java runtime environment (JRE).
10) List the areas in which data structures are applied widely?
Answer:The list of areas where data structures are applied widely are listed below:
- Compiler Design
- Operating System
- Database management System
- Numerical analysis
- Artificial Intelligence
11) Differences between Class and Struct.
Answer:A structure and a class contrast a lot as a structure has been limited functionality and its features as compared to a class. A class can be distinct as the collection of related variables and functions encapsulated in a single structure whereas a structure can be mentioned to as a user-defined datatype for handing out its operations.
A keyword “Struct” is used for assertion of Struct Whereas a keyword “class” is used for the declaration of a class in the programming language. Default access specifier of the class is private whereas default access specifier of the struct is public. The purpose of the class is data abstraction and supplementary inheritance whereas the use of the struct is generally, Grouping of the data. General usage of the struct is a small volume of data whereas general usage of the class is to store a large amount of data.
12) Define SQL tables?
Answer:A table is a set of related data in a structured format of the database. A table is consisting of rows and columns.
13) What are the differences between array and pointer?
Answer:An array is the group of similar elements having the identical data type, whereas the pointer is a variable pointing to around some data type in the memory. Arrays can only contain the elements of comparable data type whereas pointer variable is used to point to any data type variable.
14) How is abstraction and encapsulation complementary?
Answer:Abstraction and encapsulation are complementary to each other because in object-oriented programming classes can only be abstracted if it is encapsulated. The abstraction emphases on the observable behaviour of an object, whereas encapsulation focuses on the implementation that gives rise to this behaviour.
15) What is normalization of databases, joins, and keys?
Answer:Normalization is also acknowledged as the process of organizing data in a DBMS efficiently without any loss of data.
Advantages of the normalization process are as follows:
First is eliminating redundant data and ensuring data dependencies make sense. It reduces the amount of space that the database consumes and ensure that data is logically stored.
Join: This clause is used in DBMS to combine rows from two or more tables, based on a related column between them.
Keys: Keys are a crucial part of the relational database model. They are used to identify and establish relationships between tables. They are also used to uniquely determine each record or row of data in a table.
Key: A Key can be a single attribute or a group of attributes acting as a key.
16) What is meant by inheritance?
Answer:In, OOP, inheritance is a mechanism based on classes. Inheritance refers to inheriting the data members and properties of a parent class to a child class. A class which is derivative from another class is often called as a sub-class, and the class from which the child class is derived is recognized as super-class or parent class.
17) What are the various types of inheritance?
Answer:Types of Inheritance are:
- Single inheritance
- Multiple Inheritance
- Multi-level Inheritance
- Multi-path Inheritance
- Hierarchical Inheritance
- Hybrid Inheritance
18) Differences between classes and interface?
Answer:The differences between classes and interface are listed below:
The instance of the class can be created by creating its object, whereas interfaces cannot be instantiated as all the methods in the interface are abstract and do not perform any action, there is no need for instantiating an interface. A class is declared using class keyword whereas an interface is declared using interface keyword. The members of the class can have access specifier such as public, protected, and private but members of the interface cannot have the access specifier, all the members of the interface are declared as public because the interface is used to derive another class. There will be no use of access specifies inside the members of an interface.
The methods inside the class are defined to perform some actions on the fields declared in the class whereas interface lacks in declaring in fields, the methods in an interface are purely abstract. A class can implement any number of the interface but can only extend one superclass, whereas interface can extend any number of interfaces but cannot implement any interface. A class can have a constructor defined inside the class to declare the fields inside the class, whereas interface doesn’t have any constructor defined because there are no fields to be initialized.
19) What is software development life-cycle? Also, explain the waterfall model.
Answer:SDLC is a process followed for developing and enhancing software project. It consists of a detailed plan for developing, maintaining a specific software. The life cycle defines a methodology process for improving the quality of software and the overall development process.
In “The Waterfall” model, the whole process of software development is divided into separate phases. In this Waterfall model, typically, the outcome of one phase acts as the input for the next phase sequentially.
20) What are the conditional statements?
Answer:The conditional statements can alternatively be called a conditional expression also. Conditional statements are the set of rules which were executed if a particular condition is true. It is often referred to an if-then statement because if the condition is true, then the statement is executed.
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